Standard K.OA.5: Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Progression of Skills

About the Math

When students count, they are focusing on counting objects not understanding the relationship that one number has to another. So when counting on and counting back, teachers need to be explicit in what that means. How is five related to four? It is one more than four. How is four related to three? it is one less than three. There is a difference in saying "two more than" from "comes two counts after". This understanding will help students as they become fluent with the facts to five and then ten (first grade).
If students understand one and two more and one and two less, this will help when learning the facts. Problems that ask students to use one/two more and one/two less help reinforce development of fluency. VandeWall - activities - page 171.

Essential Skills and Knowledge (from MSDE Common Core Frameworks)

  • Ability to apply decomposition knowledge and relationship between addition and subtraction to determine the sum or differences of various problems

Rich Instructional Tasks

Formative Assessments (click on "Assessing Student Performance" for assessment resources)

Online Resources

Sums of Five
Five Squares
Facts of Five
Shake 5 and Spill

Print Resources

Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics, Grades K-3: Chapter 6, Strategies for Whole-Number Computation (157-185) and Chapter 10, Algebraic Reasoning (275-309)
Math Intervention: Building Number Power with Formative Assessments, Differentiation, and Games, PreK-2

Hands on Standards
  • Lesson 14, Using the Plus Sign (pg. 42)
  • Lesson 22, Addition: Sums to 10 (pg. 58)
  • Lesson 23, Subtraction: Differences from 10 (pg. 60)

Investigations Alignment

Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
Unit 6: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5A.1, 5A.5